The content of soil organic matter is closely related to soil fertility. Although organic matter only accounts for a small part of the total soil, it plays an important role in maintaining soil fertility. The manufacturer of organic fertilizer production equipment introduced six functions of organic matter to maintain soil fertility.
1. Provide nutrition for plants
Soil organic matter contains a large number of plant nutrient elements, such as N, P, K, CA, Mg, Sn, Fe and other important elements, as well as some trace elements. Soil organic matter releases a large amount of nutrients through the mineralization process to provide nutrients for plant growth; humus synthesizes humus and preserves nutrients; humus releases nutrients again through mineralization process, so as to ensure the nutritional requirements of the whole plant growth process.
2. Promote plants to absorb other nutrients
In the process of decomposition and transformation of soil organic matter, the organic acid and thermal acid produced by the decomposition and transformation of soil organic matter have a certain solubility to the mineral part of the soil, which can promote the mineral differentiation and is conducive to the availability of some nutrients. Some metal ions combined with organic acids can be retained in soil solution without causing precipitation and affecting its availability.
3. Promote plant growth and development
Soil organic matter, especially polyphenol functional group, can enhance the plant respiration process, improve the permeability of cell membrane, promote the rapid introduction of nutrients into plants, and promote the growth of plant roots. Soil organic matter also contains vitamin B1, B2, propionic acid, nicotinic acid, hormones, IAA (+) – Non-Ethylene diacetate), antibiotics (streptomycin, penicillin), etc., which can promote plant growth and enhance disease resistance.
4. Improve soil physical properties
Organic matter has many functions in improving soil physical properties. The most important and direct function of improving soil structure is to improve soil structure, promote the formation of aggregate structure, increase soil looseness, and improve soil air and water permeability. Humus is the main cement of soil aggregate. Hu mu in the soil rarely exists in free state. Most humus and mineral soil particles combine with each other. Through the mechanism of functional group and hydrogen bond, the organic-inorganic complex is formed by wrapping the surface of mineral soil particles in the form of adhesive film. The distribution of agglomerates is reasonable, the stability of large, small holes and water is strong, and the structure is good. In arid areas, organic matter can reduce the expansion and contraction of soil by increasing soil viscosity, and prevent the emergence of large cracks when the soil is dry.
5. Provide energy for soil organisms
Without soil microbes, there would be no biochemical processes in the soil. The number, quantity and activity of soil microorganisms increased with the increase of organic matter content, and had a significant positive correlation. The mineralization rate of soil organic matter is low, and it will not stimulate microorganisms such as fresh plant residues rapidly, but provide energy for microorganisms continuously and stably. Therefore, the soil rich in organic matter has stable and long-term fertility, which is not easy to cause excessive plant growth and fertilization.
6. Activate phosphorus, potassium and other nutrients
Generally speaking, phosphorus in soil pool does not exist in the state of rapid action, but in the state of slow action and slow action, so the availability of phosphorus in soil is low; soil organic matter has the characteristics of reaction with insoluble phosphorus, which can improve the solubility of phosphorus, improve the availability of phosphorus in soil and the utilization rate of phosphorus fertilizer.
Organic matter plays an important role in soil. Organic matter is processed into balls by organic fertilizer granulator, which is widely used in farmland to maintain soil fertility. There has been a great increase in crop yield.